Amniotic Fluid Embolism:

Latest Concepts and Current Research

This site is intended to provide background on Amniotic Fluid Embolism and give readers information about on-going research about this leading cause of maternal mortality in developed countries.



Research Articles

1.     Benson, Michael D.  Nonfatal Amniotic Fluid Embolism:  Three Possible Cases and   A New Clinical Definition.  Archives of Family Medicine.  2:  989-94.  1993.

2.    Benson, Michael D. and Lindberg Roger E.  Amniotic fluid embolism, anaphylaxis, and tryptase.  American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  1996:  175:  737.

3.   Benson MD, Kobayashi H, Silver RK, Oi  H, Greenberger PA, , Terao,  T.  Immunologic studies in presumed amniotic fluid embolism.  Obstetrics and Gynecology.   97:  510-4.  2001.

4.  Harboe T, Benson MD, Or H, Softeland E, Bjorge L, Guttormsen AB.  Cardiopulmonary distress during obstetrical anaesthesia:  attempts to diagnose amniotic fluid embolism in a case series of suspected allergic anaphylaxis.  Acta Anestheiol Scand  50:  324-30.  2006.

5.  Benson, MD, Kobayashi H, Sehgal LR, Oi H, Haney E.  Complement, Fetal Antigen, and Shaking Rigors In Parturients.  Maternal—Fetal and Neonatal Medicine.  January 2006; 19 (1) 31-34.

6. Benson, MD.  A Hypothesis Regarding Complement Activation and Amniotic Fluid Embolism Medical Hypotheses.  Jour Med Hypoth.  68:  2029-35.  2007.

7 . Benson MD, Haney EI, Dinsmoor M, Beaumont JL.  Shaking Rigors in Parturients.  Journal of Reproductive Medicine.  53:  685-693.  2008.



Letters to the Editor, Case Reports

1.  Benson, Michael D.  Anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy.  Letter to editor.  American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.  1996:  175:  749.  (by invitation)

2.  Benson, MD.  A Mild Case of Amniotic Fluid Embolism?  Letter to Editor.  Maternal—Fetal and Neonatal Medicine.  20 (3):  261-2.  March 2007.  (Peer reviewed.)



1.  Benson, Michael D. , Silver, Richard, Kobyashi, Hiroshi, and Greenberger Paul.  Amniotic fluid embolism--current research and theories on etiology.  The First World Congress on Maternal Mortality.  Marakesh, Morocco.  March 8-14th, 1997. Abstract.

2.  Benson MD, Oi H, Silver RK.  A mild case of amniotic fluid embolism?  Oral Presentation of abstract at XVI FIGO World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics.  Washington D. C. September 3-8. 20000

3.  Benson, MD. Evidence Of An Immunologic Etiology For Amniotic Fluid Embolism.  Grand Rounds Presentation, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare, May 11, 2000.

4.  Benson MD, Kobayashi H, Silver RK, Oi  H, Greenberger PA, Hainey E, Terao,T.  Amniotic Fluid Embolism, Anaphylaxis, and Complement.  Poster presentation.  Second International Conference on Experimental and Clinical Reproductive Immunobiology.  Amsterdam.  The Netherlands.  November 15-18, 2000.

5.  Benson, MD.  Therapeutic Equivalents In Clinical Practice.  Lecture.  Presented at:  World Foundation for Medical Studies in Female Health.  Annual Clinical Conference.  New Orleans, Louisiana.  October 12-14, 2000.

6.  Benson MD, Koyashi H, Sehgal L, Oi H, Haney E.  Complement, Fetal Antigen, and Shaking Rigors In Parturients.  Presented to Chicago Gynecologic Society, April 2003.

7.  Benson MD.  New Protocol For your Consideration:  Amniotic Fluid Embolism, Abruption, and Critically Ill Obstetrics Patients.  Presentation to Maternal Fetal Medicine  Network Quarterly Meeting, National Institutes of Health, Rockville Maryland, April 15, 2004.

8. Benson, MD  Amniotic Fluid Embolism Findings in the Past Year.  Grand

Rounds—Research Seminar.  Evanston Northwestern Healthcare.  Evanston ,

Illinois, September 16, 2004

9.  Benson MD, Haney EI, Dinsmoor MJ.  Shaking Rigors During Labor. 

ACOG District VI, VIII, and IX 2004 Meeting.  Salt Lake City, September 17.  Poster Presentation.

10. Benson, MD, Cheema, N., Kaufman M., Goldschmidt, R., Beaumont, J.

Association of Maternal Intravascular Fetal Material And Obstetrical DIC. Society for Gynecologic Investigation Annual Meeting.  San Diego, CA.  March 27-30.  2008.


Current Concepts of Immunology and Diagnosis in AFE--2011 (PDF File)

1. Benson, MD. Current Concepts of Immunology and Diagnosis in Amniotic Fluid
Embolism. Clinical and Developmental Immunology Volume 2012, Article ID
946576, 7 pages. doi:10.1155/2012/946576